CULTURAL COMPETENCE LEVEL, ITS IMPORTANCE, AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR CULTURAL COMPETENCE AMONG NURSES CARING FOR FOREIGNERS IN KOREA

Main Article Content

Nageong KIM, M. N.
Dong-Hee KIM
Jungha PARK

Keywords

Cultural competence, education, international experience, Korean nurses, needs

Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to identify cultural competency, importance, and educational requirements by analyzing nurses who were experienced in nursing foreigners in secondary hospitals and hospitals all over Korea.


Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 210 nurses from 39 hospitals in Korea. The collected data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, and Scheffe test.


Main Findings: Satisfaction with nursing care averaged 2.48 ± 0.45. Perceived level of cultural competence averaged 2.69 ± 0.45. Cultural nursing behavior was at the highest level with 3.05±0.62; otherwise, cultural knowledge was the lowest among the subcategories (2.27±0.55). The level of importance of cultural competency was 3.69 ± 0.53. For the subcategories, cultural nursing behavior was at the highest level (3.77±0.63) and cultural awareness was at the lowest level (3.58±0.62). Training requirements had 6.83 ± 1.32, followed by cultural communication (7.34±1.50), attitudes and skills (7.04±1.50), knowledge of basics (6.83±1.33), knowledge of key concepts (6.73±1.53), and knowledge of theory and research (6.28±1.54).


Implications/Applications: We suggest developing educational programs for clinical nurses to provide high-quality care to the subjects from various cultural backgrounds by strengthening cultural competency. In addition, the active support of the medical and health care institutions in improving cultural competency of nursing nurses should be emphasized.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 30 | PDF Downloads 25 XML Downloads 1 ePUB Downloads 1

References

1. Alshehhi. A. S. (2016). Organizational knowledge systems. International Journal of Business and Administrative Studies, 2(6), 193-200. https://doi.org/10.20469/ijbas.2.10004-6
2. Ameer. N. (2017). Impact of organizational culture on employee performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). International Journal of Business and Administrative Studies, 3(5),183-196. https://doi.org/10.20469/ijbas.3.10004-5
3. Anderson, L. M., Scrimshaw, S. C., Fullilove, M. T., Fielding, J. E., Normand, J., & Task Force on Community Preventive Services. (2003). Culturally competent healthcare systems: A systematic review. American journal of preventive medicine, 24(3), 68-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00657-8
4. Balcom, (2015). Surviving and thriving in intensive care: Preparing new nurses.” International Journal of Health and Medical Sciences, 1(3), 48-50. https://doi.org/10.20469/ijhms.30001-3
5. Ballantyne, J. E. (2008). Cultural competency: Highlighting the work of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing--California Endowment Advisory Group. Journal of Professional Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2008.04.002
6. Castro, A., & Ruiz, E. (2009). The effects of nurse practitioner cultural competence on Latina patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21(5), 278-286. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.2009.00406.x
7. Chae, D. H., Park, Y. H., Kang, K. H., & Lee, T. H. (2012). A study on factors affecting cultural competency of general hospital nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 18(1), 76-86. https://doi.org/10.11111/jkana.2012.18.1.76
8. Choi, K. S., Morgan, S., Thongpriwan, V., Lee, S. Y., & Jun, M. (2014). A proposed teaching model to improve cultural competency care for undergraduate Korean nursing students. J Korean Acad Soc Nurs Educ, 20(3), 424. https://doi.org/10.5977/jkasne.2014.20.3.424
9. Dayer-Berenson, L. (2014). Cultural competencies for nurses: Impact on health and illness. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
10. Dewi, N. I. K., Mataram, I. G. A. B., & Siwantara, I. W., (2017). Validating a framework of the integration of corporate social responsibility and culture: The case of hotel industry. International Journal of Business and Economic Affairs. 2(1), 31-44. https://doi.org/10.24088/IJBEA-2017-21005
11. Divi, C., Koss, R. G., Schmaltz, S. P., & Loeb, J. M. (2007). Language proficiency and adverse events in US hospitals: a pilot study. International journal for quality in health care, 19(2), 60-67. https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzl069
12. Festini, F., Focardi, S., Bisogni, S., Mannini, C., & Neri, S. (2009). Providing transcultural to children and parents: an exploratory study from Italy. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 41(2), 220-227. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01274.x
13. Hirano, Y. (1998). Zainichifiripinjinroudousya no jyushinkoudou nikansuru kenkyu [Study of foreign residents' behavior toward visiting the hospital]. Kyusyudaigaku, Iryougijyututankidaigakubukiyou [Bulletin of Kyusyu University, Medical Junior College], 25, 11-20.
14. International Council of Nurses (2011), Position statement Cultural and linguistic competence. Retrieved From: https://bit.ly/2JD1k8I
15. Jones, S. M. (2008). Emergency nurses’ caring experiences with Mexican American patients. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 34(3), 199-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2007.05.009
16. Kim, R. M. (2015). Educational needs for cultural nursing competences and cultural competence of Korean nurses. Suwon: Ajou Univ.
17. Kim, S. H. (2013). Transcultural Self-efficacy and Educational Needs for Cultural Competence in Nursing of Korean Nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 43(1). https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2013.43.1.102
18. Kim, S. H., Kim, K. W., & Bae, K. E. (2014). Experiences of nurses who provide childbirth care for women with multi-cultural background. Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, 28(1), 87-101. https://doi.org/10.5932/JKPHN.2014.28.1.87
19. Koh, C. K., & Koh.S,(2009). Married female migrants' experiences of health care services. The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education, 15(1), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.5977/JKASNE.2009.15.1.089
20. Langer. M. (2002). Culturally competent professionals. Medical Care, 40, 22–26.
21. Lee, B. S., Oh, I. K., & Lee, E. M. (2011). Foreign residents' experience of Korean health care services. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 17(2), 226-237. https://doi.org/10.11111/jkana.2011.17.2.226
22. Lee, J. I. (2011). Study on relationship between cultural competency and empathy of nurses. Unpublished master's thesis, Hallym University, Chuncheon.
23. Lee, J. Y., Lee, H. K., Kim, S., & Jang, Y. S. (2014). Comparison of perceived nurses’ cultural competence of nurses and foreign patients. Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research, 20(3), 267-278.
24. Lee, T. S. (2017). Employee Retention and Job Performance Attributes in Private Institutions of Higher Education.
25. Leininger, M. (2002). Transcultural nursing and globalization of health care: Importance, focus, and historical aspects. MM Leininger & MR McFarland, Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories, research, and practice, 3-43.
26. Leininger, M. (2007). Theoretical questions and concerns: Response from the theory of culture care diversity and universality perspective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20(1), 9-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894318406296784
27. Lenssen, G., Blagov, Y., Bevan, D., Chen, H., & Wang, X. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance in China: an empirical research from Chinese firms. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society.
28. Mahabeer, S. A. (2009). A descriptive study of the cultural competence of hemodialysis nurses. CANNT journal= Journal ACITN, 19(4), 30-33.
29. Majumdar, B., Browne, G., Roberts, J., & Carpio, B. (2004). Effects of cultural sensitivity training on health care provider attitudes and patient outcomes. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36(2), 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2004.04029.x
30. Ministry of Health and Welfare. (2014) Foreign patients attract research results survey. Retrieved From: https://bit.ly/32v7Wi8
31. Ministry of Justice Japan, (2005). Report of the number of foreign residents in 2004,” Retrieved From: https://bit.ly/2Y4kM7B
32. Mohamad Yusof, H.S. et al 2017) “The relationship between organizational culture and employee motivation as moderated by work attitude.” Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 3(1), 21-25. https://doi.org/10.20474/jabs-3.1.3
33. National Statistical Office. (2014). The number of foreigners. Retrieved From: https://bit.ly/2XJ3kq8
34. Neander, W., & Markle, D. (2005). Improving the cultural competence of nursing students: Results of integrating cultural content in the curriculum and an international immersion experience. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(5), 234.
35. Paez, K. A., Allen, J. K., Beach, M. C., Carson, K. A., & Cooper, L. A. (2009). Physician cultural competence and patient ratings of the patient-physician relationship. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(4), 495-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-009-0919-7
36. Park, H. S., Ha, S. J., Park, J. H., Yu, J. H., & Lee, S. H. (2014). Employment experiences of nurses caring for foreign patients. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 20(3), 281-291. https://doi.org/10.11111/jkana.2014.20.3.281
37. Park, J. S. (2011)., Study on Cultural Competence of Nurses Working in General Hospital.
38. Park, M. W., & Park, E. A., (2013). Effect of cultural competence education for nurse. Multicultural Education Studies, 6(2), 115-133.
39. Reimann, J. O., Talavera, G. A., Salmon, M., Nuñez, J. A., & Velasquez, R. J. (2004). Cultural competence among physicians treating Mexican Americans who have diabetes: A structural model. Social Science & Medicine, 59(11), 2195-2205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.03.025
40. Salman, A., McCabe, D., Easter, T., Callahan, B., Goldstein, D., Smith, T. D., ... & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2007). Cultural competence among staff nurses who participated in a family-centered geriatric care program. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 23(3), 103-111. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NND.0000277179.40206.be
41. Schim, S. M. ., Benkert.R., Doorenbos, A. Z. ., & Miller.J. (2003). Development of a cultural competence assessment instrument.” Journal of Nursing Measurement, 11(1), 29-44. https://doi.org/10.1891/jnum.11.1.29.52062
42. Serizawa, A. (2007). Developing a culturally competent health care workforce in Japan: Implications for education. Nursing education perspectives, 28(3), 140-144.
43. Son, H. M., Je, M. J., & Lee, B. J. (2014). Integrative review on cultural competence of nurse. Korean Journal of Culture and Arts Education Studies, 9(4), 25-47. https://doi.org/10.15815/kjcaes.2014.9.4.25
44. Taiwan.A., Na-Nan.K., & Ngudgratoke.S., (2017). Relationship among personality, transformational leadership, percerived organizational support, expatriate adjustment, and expatriate performance.” International Journal of Business and Administrative Studies, 3(4), 129-141. https://doi.org/10.20469/ijbas.3.10001-4
45. Taylor, R. (2005). Addressing barriers to cultural competence. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 21(4), 135-142. https://doi.org/10.1097/00124645-200507000-00001
46. Taylor, R. A., & Alfred, M. V. (2010). Nurses’ perceptions of the organizational supports needed for the delivery of culturally competent care. Western journal of nursing research, 32(5), 591-609. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193945909354999
47. Toda, T., & Maru, M. (2018). Cultural Sensitivity of Japanese Nurses: Exploring Clinical Application of the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale. Open Journal of Nursing, 8(09), 640. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojn.2018.89048
48. Tulman, L., & Watts, R. J. (2008). Development and testing of the blueprint for integration of cultural competence in the curriculum questionnaire. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2008.01.006
49. Walton, J. (2011). Can a one-hour presentation make an impact on cultural awareness? Nephrology Nursing Journal, 38(1).
50. Yang, S. Y., Lim, H. N., & Lee, J. H. (2013). The study on relationship between cultural competency and empathy of nursing students. The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education, 19(2), 183-193. https://doi.org/10.5977/jkasne.2013.19.2.183
51. Yazici, H. (2016). The art of opera in Turkey within the scope of culture-art policies. International Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 2(5), 159-164. https://doi.org/10.20469/ijhss.2.20001-5